Small tech stocks are posting eye-popping gains.

Fastly is up more than 310 percent this year. Zscaler is up over 180 percent. Chegg and Veeva are up 75 percent and 90 percent. In a tech universe dominated by Apple, Amazon, Microsoft and Google, the share prices of little companies you’ve probably never heard of are soaring.

The coronavirus pandemic has accelerated trends that were building for years by forcing large swaths of the population to work from home and shop online. And many obscure companies are taking off, driven by investors who expect them to flourish in an economy whose future arrived ahead of schedule.

“When it comes to remote work in particular, the past 10 weeks have seen more changes than we’ve seen in the previous 20 years,” said Erik Brynjolfsson, an economist and the director of the Digital Economy Lab at Stanford University.

Surveys conducted by Mr. Brynjolfsson and economists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found that the share of Americans working from home jumped to about 50 percent this year, from around 15 percent before the pandemic.

The tech-heavy Nasdaq composite index is up roughly 60 percent since it bottomed out in late March, and much of those gains can be attributed to the shares of the tech behemoths. Investors have bet heavily that those companies’ dominant market positions will only improve in the pandemic and its aftermath.

But the trajectory of smaller technology stocks has been even more remarkable. Zoom — the suddenly ubiquitous video conferencing service — has been an investor darling, up close to 500 percent this year as workplaces shut down. Peloton, the home video cycling company, is up almost 200 percent amid widespread gym closures — and just added to its product line.

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